The global demand for water treatment products should rise at 6.6 percent per year between 2002 and 2007 and reach almost $35 billion by the end of that period. China will record the highest rate of growth among major markets with a 17 percent annual rise through 2007. Gains in the developing world will reflect ongoing efforts to deliver safe drinking water to the more than one billion people who currently lack access. The most promising markets are those in the Pacific Rim and Latin America. Gains in highly industrialized countries will be governed by stricter laws and regulations, increased recycling in manufacturing, and the desire for advanced filtration and disinfection. As for major end use sectors or applications, the industrial and energy markets will overshadow the more stable municipal markets. Nonchemical water treatment products are projected to register faster growth than water treatment chemicals, but the two categories are often complementary rather than competitive in various applications. The industry making this wide variety of goods is highly fragmented, since there are hundreds of product vendors and suppliers. The three top producers--Veolia Environnement (France), General Electric (U.S.), and Nalco (U.S.)--together account for only one quarter of total shipments. Smaller firms can compete with narrow product lines that focus on niche markets.
Key External Variables and Trends
The demand for water treatment products is generally linked to the overall health of a national or regional economy. Robust economic growth implies heightened manufacturing activity and energy use; these in turn boost demand for water treatment products. Population growth and demographic shifts also have an important influence on the demand for water pollution control goods, though the impact is weaker as it takes time to build infrastructure. Environmental laws and regulatory edicts mean mandates that affect both water and wastewater treatment; but it is the enlightened action of users, conservation trends, performance standards, and the actual enforcement of government rules that bring about higher demand for water treatment products.
Demographics and Economics
Increases in population and formation of new households generate demand for more potable water. Urbanization and migration patterns also affect the situation by putting added pressure on existing water distribution systems. We estimate that world population will grow from 5.8 billion people in 1997 to 6.6 billion in 2007, while urban population will rise from 2.7 billion to 3.3 billion during the same period. The shift from rural to urban areas, especially strong in Africa and Asia, means that investments must be made in at least a minimum level of housing and associated infrastructure in these regions. All public and private structures require at least an elementary water and wastewater network.
In plotting data on a country-by-country basis, we found a strong, positive correlation between manufacturing value added per capita and water treatment per capita. Countries with higher levels of manufacturing output and energy usage, such as Germany, France, and Japan, use substantial amounts of water treatment products. (Of course, they also have stricter environmental standards.) Developing countries, such as Brazil, India, and China, with less developed infrastructures, are less intensive users of such products. These countries, however, are industrializing rapidly and thus are likely to show faster growth in demand for water treatment goods in the future. Manufacturing sectors in developing countries that are major users include food and beverage, tobacco, electronics, and pulp and paperboard. Energy generation--especially the electric power sector--is also a leading end user.
Table 1 shows the worldwide demand for water treatment. To put the water treatment figures into context although they are in current dollars, manufacturing value added in 1998 dollars stood at $7,900 billion or 20.7 percent of world GDP in 1997, with the corresponding figure at $11,750 billion or 21.8 percent of world GDP in 2007. We estimate that gross fixed investment should rise from $8,750 billion in 1997 to $12,900 in 2007 and world energy output should go from 382 quadrillion Btus in 1997 to 451 quadrillion Btus in 2007.
Water Use and Water Pollution
The world used nearly 4,000 cubic kilometers of water in 2002, yet supplies were still insufficient in many areas, as more than one billion people lacked access to safe drinking sources. Demand for water is forecast to increase slowly, at about 1.2 percent annually through 2007. The Asia-Pacific region will remain the largest water user by far (at 56 percent of the global total), with Africa-Mideast showing strong gains. While water use is a key factor in the demand for water treatment products, the percentage of water and wastewater treated varies widely across countries and regions.
Water pollution comes from non-point and point sources. The former category includes agricultural runoff and motor oil leakages. By their nature, these are difficult to monitor or control. Indeed, while much water is used in agriculture, relatively few if any water treatment products are utilized to treat farm runoff. Point sources of pollution are manufacturing effluent and municipal sewer waste. These tend to be regulated heavily by the various levels of government (especially in developed countries). Specific categories of point source water pollution are radioactive substances, heat (from cooling towers, etc.), sediments, chemicals and minerals, plant nutrients, disease causing agents (infectious organisms), and oxygen-demanding wastes. Each of these requires a different management/treatment strategy.
Various economic studies indicate that freshwater quality improves at higher levels of income. However, a World Bank study of 25 rivers in more than 50 countries showed a more complex situation with regard to one specific form of pollution. Fecal pollution got worse up to about $1400/capita income, after which rivers got cleaner; but fecal pollution got worse again when income exceeded $11,500. According to B. Lomborg (2001), at that stage, people start using less river water and more groundwater. This author cites convincing evidence to show that various forms of water pollution declined sharply in the rivers and lakes of North America and Western Europe.
Legal and Regulatory Issues
The laws, rules, and standards applicable to water quality and wastewater cleanup vary widely from country to country. The regulations have a profound impact on all who use water and discharge wastewater. The prevailing trend in recent decades favored stricter regulations, with higher levels of monitoring and penalties. Water testing has become routine; companies can be fined for a full day for a momentary lapse. Thus, operators are more vigilant in ensuring that plant effluents meet the mandated minimum levels.
As a general rule, the richest countries have the most restrictive rules about water quality. In North America, Canada and the United States have strong legislation and high standards, and enforcement is becoming more stringent. Canada's system is relatively decentralized, with authority shared among federal, provincial, and local authorities. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency administers primary government directives. Mexico's environmental regulations are considered the weakest of these three North American countries. Regulations in Western Europe are among the toughest in the world. The European Union adopted directives in 1991 vis-a-vis urban and industrial wastewater with deadlines in 2005. In other regions, rules are uneven and enforcement is non-existent or spotty. Along with others, we see a general trend toward stricter laws and improved enforcement.
Major Product Categories for Water Treatment
As seen in Table 1, water treatment products can be classified into non-chemical products and supplies and chemical goods. The former embraces two subcategories: (1) filtration and separation goods and (2) disinfection and other products. The latter has four subgroups: (1) corrosion inhibitors, (2) coagulants and flocculants, (3) oxidizers and biocides, and (4) all other. On a global basis, nonchemical products accounted for 55 percent of the total and chemicals for 45 percent in 1997; we estimate the corresponding percentages at 60 percent and 40 percent by 2007. Nonchemical products and chemical goods compete directly in some applications, notably disinfection, but for the most part the product lines are used together. For example, chemical coagulants are used in conjunction with physical filtration processes.
In this large grouping, filtration and separation goods account for 90 percent, disinfection and other products for the remaining ten percent (with the total valued at $14.4 billion worldwide, as of 2002). We project, however, much faster growth for the latter, with annual rates during 2002-2007 projected at seven and 18 percent, respectively. Technological advances are present in both categories. Conventional filters are now used in tandem with membranes that take out finer particles. Disinfection product orders are expected to rise sharply as operators turn to ozonation and ultraviolet radiation that are safer techniques with few byproducts or chemical residuals. (Note: We are using the term "non-chemical products [or goods]" because we are excluding related equipment used in a general fashion to move any kind of water or wastewater--e.g., valves, pumps, pipes.)
In this large grouping, corrosion inhibitors account for 33 percent, coagulants and flocculants for 25 percent, oxidizers and biocides for 21 percent, and "all other" for 21 percent of the total dollar value of shipments (put at nearly $11 billion globally in 2002). Corrosion inhibitors protect metal equipment and piping from the effect of prolonged contact with water. Nitrites and other conventional corrosion inhibitors offer low cost and good performance and are favored by many industries in most regions. Newer, proprietary, higher cost formulations are now used in high-income countries. Coagulants and flocculants assist with the clumping of suspended solids for quick settlement of sludge. There is a shift from cheaper, inorganic coagulants such as alum to more expensive organic polymers due to more effectiveness, implying that the higher price is justified by better performance (e.g., much less sludge).
Oxidizers and biocides are used to kill biological organisms in boiler, cooling, process, supply, and wastewater. Increased recycling in industries creates opportunities for this group of chemicals, because recycled water is more prone to biological contamination than fresh water. Growth in the long term, however, will be constrained by the move to non-chemical treatment such as ultraviolet disinfection, membrane filtration, and ozonation. The cheapest biocides are chlorine and its derivatives. They are still widely used, but operators are seeking less toxic alternatives. The fourth category is a vast panoply of "all other" chemicals such as pH adjusters (needed for neutralization), softeners, defoamers, chelating agents, and fluoridation chemicals. Growth in this category is affected by both price/performance ratios and regulations.
Major End User/Application Segments
In all countries, three major user segments purchase water treatment products, both non-chemical and chemical: industries, municipalities, and commercial/residential users. Table 1 provides absolute numbers and growth rates, on a global basis, between 1997 and 2007. At the start of this period, the distribution among the three sectors was 50, 42, and eight percent; the change by 2007 will be slight--to 49, 44, and seven percent, respectively. In the industrial sector, power generation facilities, chemical/petroleum processors, and pulp/paper producers are the top users. Municipalities around the world, regardless of location, are concerned with clean supply water and cleansing wastewater. The commercial/residential segment uses treatment equipment and chemicals in structures, service operations, and recreational facilities.
The demand for water treatment products in this sector is driven by continuing industrialization in the developing world, increased recycling in developed countries, and solid growth in several key markets. While every sector uses water and hence needs some treatment products, a relatively small number account for a vast majority of both water usage and the purchase of water treatment products. Power generation was responsible for 15 percent, chemical/petroleum sector for 11 percent, and paper/pulp production for nine percent of the industry total in 2002. Other large users are food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, electronics, rubber, and metals. Country patterns vary, of course, depending on type of prevalent industries. Certain industry sectors (such as electronics and fine chemicals) require high purity standards.
The volume of water used by electricity generating utilities is vast due to heating, cooling, and process requirements. However, the water is treated less aggressively than water used in many other industrial markets. The chemical/petroleum processing industry is a heavy user of water treatment chemicals, ranging from corrosion inhibitors to coagulants/flocculants. Gains in sales here will come from increased petroleum refining, an improved outlook for chemical production, and higher effluent standards in many countries. In pulp/paper production, there is a long run trend toward less water use per ton of output due to closed loop systems and other conservation and efficiency efforts. Still, constantly recycled water requires more aggressive treatment. We foresee gains for sales of disinfection equipment, flocculants, and defoamers.
Municipal water systems are involved in the supply of water and the cleansing of wastewater for both households and commercial establishments. These, in turn, use water for drinking, cooking, bathing, gardens, recreation, and other purposes. As a general rule, municipalities are conservative in their product and technology choices, so changes in treatment tend to be slow and modest. Municipal water authorities favor conventional filtration over membranes and other advanced technologies. Still, we expect that reverse osmosis systems will register robust gains. Chemicals will remain the dominant mode for disinfection, but some operators are embracing ozonation and ultraviolet radiation. In some countries, there is a move toward privatizing municipal water systems; this may portend a wider embrace of the latest technology in water and wastewater treatment.
Hotels/motels, amusement parks, health clubs, and other sports/recreational facilities are the major commercial outlets for sale of water treatment equipment and chemicals. These establishments feature swimming pools, spas, or elaborate water parks for their clientele. Various filtration, separation, and disinfection products as well as chemicals are used by such customers. In the household sector, easy-to-install home filtration kits are being marketed along with filtration systems for residential pools and hot tubs. Such goods are the hallmarks of rich countries; home water treatment products are still considered luxuries in most industrializing countries. Yet, even in developing countries, members of the growing upper and middle classes are turning toward such offerings, paralleling their consumption of store-bought bottled water and other amenities.
In 1997, North America accounted for 35 percent of all water treatment products, with Western Europe, Asia/Pacific, and all other regions at 30, 25, and 10 percent, respectively. Only a very slight shift is expected in this distribution by 2007: North America is projected at 34, Western Europe at 27, Asia/Pacific at 29, and all other regions combined at ten percent of the total. Such stability implies widespread and continued use of water treatment products around the globe. As a general rule, however, we expect rich countries to turn toward increasingly sophisticated cleanup techniques and technically advanced goods and services.
This region of 421 million persons with a gross domestic product of $11,500 billion in 2002 (1998 dollars) experienced extensive industrialization in the past. Canada and the United States have become mature economies with services dominating; Mexico continues its development with intraregional trade, technology transfer, and commercialization. All three countries have suffered loss of manufacturing jobs to Asia/Pacific and Latin America. The changes taking place have not adversely affected the market for water treatment products. The region is still home to a wide-ranging array of resource extractive, manufacturing, and service industries. The U.S. municipal sector, consisting of hundreds of different authorities, is under pressure to provide consumers with cleaner potable water and to discharge less effluent into the environment. Many municipalities increased their use of disinfectants as well as higher value coagulants; they also started to experiment with more sophisticated combinations of equipment and chemicals.
As of 2002, this region had a resident population of 391 million and its gross domestic product reached the $8,900 billion mark (1998 dollars). While economic performance has been uneven in the past decade, the drive toward unification continued. In May, 2004, the European Union expanded from 15 to 25 countries, and the euro is now in use across much of the continent. As in North America, certain operations and jobs moved offshore. Just the same, the region is home to extensive manufacturing and vast commercial operations as well as utilities and construction-related industries. Demand for water treatment products has been enhanced by concern for environmental protection. A 1991 directive by the European Union focused on reducing the impact of wastewater from both municipalities and the vast array of food processors. Many facilities in the region must upgrade to meet a 2005 deadline.
We have chosen France to illustrate the type of numbers collected and then analyzed on a country-by-country basis in order to arrive at total figures for regions and the world. France is the second largest economy in Western Europe, with a sophisticated industrial sector; and it is a major exporter of motor vehicles and engineered products. France's economic performance has been somewhat volatile since 1993, with halting growth during 1993-1997, strong gains in 1998-2000, and another slowdown in 2001-2002. Over the next three years its growth is expected to lag slightly behind the Western European region, but with indicators rising at a steady pace as illustrated in Table 2.
France boasts several major water-consuming manufacturing industries, such as petroleum refining, chemicals, primary metals, food and beverages, and textiles. France also has a large power generation industry, with heavy reliance on nuclear plants that use large cooling towers. As a result, the country's industrial sector uses all types of water treatment products in moderate to sizable quantities. Chemicals are widely used. Details are shown in Table 3. The total market for France is slated to increase at about 4.3 percent per year to 2007, lagging slightly behind the Western European pace. This is due in part to slower growth of fixed investment activity in France. The country is host to some leading companies in the making of both non-chemical products and chemicals. At the top of the list is Veolia Environnement (formerly Vivendi). Suez Ondeo spun off its Nalco division to a consortium of private equity firms. Other firms with facilities in France include BWT, CUNO, General Electric, Great Lakes Chemical, Hercules, and Kemira. Other suppliers with a presence include Arch Chemicals, Ionics, Pall, Pentair, Rohm & Haas, and WEDECO.
This vast region encompasses many countries at varying stages of development, ranging from prosperous to impoverished and from emerging to mature. The three dominant forces are the loose democracy of India, rich but slowly recuperating Japan, and the vast economy of China, which has been booming recently despite tight political controls. Though hit by the Asian financial crisis of 1997-1998 and the slowdown of the global economy in the early 2000s, the region appears to be rebounding from currency adjustments and other economic/financial problems. Growth, industrialization, and structural reforms are taking place concurrently in many countries.
The market for all water treatment products in the region hit the $6.6 billion mark in 2002, third largest in the world behind Western Europe and North America. In that year, Japan dominated with 40 percent of the total. By 2007, the percentage breakdown should be roughly one third Japan, one third China, and one third the remaining countries. Rising energy consumption, infrastructure construction, and water utilization in China as well as Indonesia, Malaysia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand will be the key factors aiding the sale of products. In the past, these countries have rushed into energy exploration, manufacturing, and service activities, paying little attention to diminished water resources and water quality. Governments, private sector firms, and environmentalists now all call for a change of direction and in policies.
Three other disparate regions constitute "the rest of the world"--Latin America, Africa-Mideast, and Eastern Europe. In 2002, together they accounted for 30 percent of global population, but for only 18 percent of world gross domestic product, and ten percent of total water treatment product shipments. The growth of GDP in the three regions combined will trail slightly the global average through the current mid-decade. This will not be sufficient to raise living standards meaningfully on an across-the-board basis, particularly in Africa/Mideast and Latin America. A number of countries have the potential to become more prosperous, but these are the already better-developed countries of Israel, South Africa, Turkey, and Brazil. Eastern Europe, given its higher level of industrialization and economic reforms, should achieve more meaningful levels of prosperity as this decade comes to a close.
The demand for water treatment products in the three regions combined should increase at the rate of about 6.7 percent per year between 2002 and 2007. This rate is significantly lower than projections for other developing countries, especially China and India. The reasons for this include countries facing general civil unrest, ethnic strife, actual war, and other political or social problems. Economic instability, lack of reforms, and inadequate infrastructure in many countries are another cluster of causes for slow growth. This includes neglect of water supplies, insufficient treatment of wastewater, and widespread water pollution from industrial and commercial facilities. External aid is coming and internal reforms do occur, albeit slowly. In the three regions, Eastern Europe accounted for 52, Latin America for 26, and Africa/Mideast for 22 percent of the total demand for water treatment products in 2002.
Industry Structure, Business Strategies, Marketing Activities
Many large and small companies participate in the global water treatment market. Some focus on nonchemical goods, others on chemicals, and many offer a wide array of both types of products. Several leading firms feature a range of services in addition to product lines. Large customers prefer "one stop shopping" with such vendors. This is not a new arrangement, but it continues to reshape the market as clients streamline their relationship with suppliers. This still leaves room for producers supplying specific goods to niche markets.
Among the major suppliers to the global water treatment market in 2002, the following firms offered a broad product line: Ashland (Drew), Buckman Laboratories, ChemTreat, General Electric, Great Lakes Chemical, Kemira, Nalco, and Veolia Environnement. Those with a more specific, narrow product line included: Arch Chemicals, Clorox (Brita), CUNO, Cytec Industries, Ionics, and Pall. Market share leaders worldwide in 2002 were Veolia with 12, GE with eight, and Nalco with six percent of the total. Clearly, the industry is not highly concentrated. The market leaders offer an integrated, diversified product line; but for most of them, water treatment is still a small, though growing, part of their total sales (Bayer, Dow, General Electric). In the next tier, are the midsize water treatment chemical firms; for them, the water treatment market is a significant share of their sales (Buckman, ChemTreat, Ionics, Nalco, Pall).
Business Strategies and Tactics
Manufacturers of water treatment products utilize a variety of long- and short-run moves to strengthen their positions. Large companies generally emphasize low-cost manufacturing, customer service, internal growth coupled with smart acquisitions, and a strong research and development program. For bulk chemicals--such as lime, chlorine, alum--firms stress high volume, low cost, and location as even tiny per-unit cost savings can bolster profits and market share. At the same time, aggressive growth and/or acquisitions come into play, such as General Electric choosing to enter the field via its purchase of BetzDearborn and Osmonics. Others, such as Nalco, stress their diverse offerings of water treatment goods, energy, and cleanup services (e.g., waste and fuel management).
To compete with the large, full-service water treatment companies, smaller firms often rely on in-depth offerings in a narrower product family and a market focus strategy. Thus, CUNO and Pall offer filters and membranes, Cytec Industries features coagulants and flocculants, and Ionics emphasizes separation technologies. Customers include food and beverage, energy, electronics, paper and pulp, and other industrial sector facilities. Cooperative arrangements are often forged between medium-size U.S. and foreign firms, such as Arch Chemicals and Votorantim (Brazil), Ashland and Chembonds (India), Calgon Carbon and Datong Huibao (China), Ionics and Toray Industries (Japan). Even as large firms are closing some manufacturing facilities--as Procter & Gamble did with its PUR operation in the United States--smaller companies open new ones abroad, as Buckman Labs did in China.
Small as well as large vendors emphasize the "4P's" of marketing: product, price, promotion, and place. For commodities--such as basic inorganic chemicals--service support is stressed rather than the products themselves. For specialty chemicals, the emphasis is on advanced features and performance characteristics. Customers expect technical support to operate their large water systems, and vendors locate their technicians on-site and even around the clock. Pricing is aggressive for commodity goods, less so for specialty items. Advertising is prevalent in trade journals but has even spread to mainstream media (e.g., General Electric water ad on NBC). The Internet/World Wide Web has become important with buyers and sellers since they now have access to each other's websites, auctions, and so forth, and can link up in a streamlined supply chain. Finally, vendors promote loyalty bonds with clients via "relationship" marketing. An early example of this in the United States was a national award given to Mogul (later acquired by Dexter). Mogul offered a warranty that its water treatment chemical service met government guidelines. That is, the customer was in compliance with all requisite rules. If, by chance, a violation did occur, Mogul would play the penalty.
Methodology and Sources
This study is based on a major monograph published in March, 2004 by The Freedonia Group. Historical data for 1997 and 2002 and forecasts to 2007 are provided for demand at manufacturers' level in current dollars. Demand refers to sales or apparent consumption and denotes production plus imports, less exports. Information came from primary sources via consultations with vendors and clients. Secondary sources ranged from government agencies to trade associations, from online databases to trade journals. Data on companies came from annual and 10K reports, product brochures, and security analysts. Macroeconomic indicators were based on The Freedonia Group's own consensus forecasts. GDP and other historical data rely on various national income and product accounts (NIPA) from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), International Monetary Fund (IMF), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and the World Bank. The methodology is further discussed in A. Gross et al., "Analyzing and Forecasting Global Industrial Markets," Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on International Business (San Francisco, January, 2004), and the paper is available on request from the author.
TABLE 1 GLOBAL WATER TREATMENT DEMAND BY MAJOR REGION, TYPE OF PRODUCT, AND END USE, 1997-2007 (MILLION US DOLLARS) Item % Annual Growth 1997 2002 2007 1997-2002 2002-2007 Total World Water 20,153 25,200 34,700 4.6 6.6 Treatment Demand By Region North America: 7,073 8,850 11,875 4.6 6.1 United States 5,853 7,270 9,765 4.4 6.1 Canada & Mexico 1,220 1,580 2,110 5.3 6.0 Western Europe 6,090 7,270 9,260 3.6 5.0 Asia/Pacific: 5,065 6,645 10,195 5.6 8.9 China 740 1,455 3,220 14.5 17.2 Japan 2,585 2,810 3,390 1.7 3.8 Other Asia/Pacific 1,740 2,380 3,585 6.5 8.5 Other Regions: 1,925 2,435 3,370 4.8 6.7 Latin America 565 640 895 2.5 6.9 Eastern Europe 980 1,275 1,745 5.4 6.5 Africa/Mideast 380 520 730 6.5 7.0 By Type of Product Non-chemical Goods 11,015 14,380 20,820 5.5 7.7 Chemicals 9,138 10,820 13,880 3.5 5.1 By Major End User/Market Industrial 10,135 12,220 16,930 3.8 6.7 Municipal 8,401 10,956 15,209 5.5 6.8 Residential/Commercial 1,617 2,024 2,561 4.6 4.8 Source: Deneen (2004). TABLE 2 FRANCE: SELECTED ECONOMIC AND MARKET INDICATORS, 1997-2007 Item 1997 2002 2007 Resident Population(mil persons) 58.5 59.5 60.7 GDP/capita (1998 US $) 21,570 24,300 26,440 Gross Domestic Product(bil 98 US $) 1,262 1,446 1,605 Gross Fixed Investment (bil 98 US $) 224.5 287.5 316.0 Manufacturing Value Added (bil 98 US $) 230 261 288 Food, Beverages, Tobacco. Mfg Value Added (bil 98 US$) 31.7 32.0 32.5 Paper & Board Production (mil metric ton) 9.1 9.8 11.2 Energy Production (quadrillion Btu) 4.9 5.2 5.5 Water Use (cubic km) 39 40 42 Source: Deneen (2004). TABLE 3 FRANCE: WATER TREATMENT PRODUCTS 1997-2007 BY TYPE AND MAJOR END USER/MARKET (MILLION US DOLLARS) Item 1997 2002 2007 Total Water Treatment Demand 925 1150 1420 By Type: Non-chemical 480 625 815 Filtration & Separation 465 580 720 Disinfection & Other 15 45 95 Chemical 445 525 605 Corrosion Inhibitors 140 175 195 Coagulants & Flocculants 130 160 185 Oxidizers & Biocides 70 80 95 Other 105 110 130 By Major End User /Market: Industrial 490 585 740 Municipal 350 460 570 Residential/Commercial 85 105 110 West Europe Water Treatment Demand 6,090 7,270 9,260 Percent Accounted for by France 15 16 15 Source: Deneen (2004).
Deneen, Michael. 2004. World Water Treatment, Study #1769. Cleveland: The Freedonia Group.
Lomborg, Bjorn. 2001. The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World. Cambridge University Press.
Michael A. Deneen is a senior industry analyst at The Freedonia Group in Cleveland, Ohio. Andrew C. Gross is professor of marketing and international business at Cleveland State University in Cleveland, Ohio.
This paper is based on a 280-page monograph written by Michael Deneen that was published in March, 2004 by The Freedonia Group (Deneen, 2004). In the April, 2003 issue of Business Economics, we covered the U.S. market for water treatment products. This article covers the rest of the world.